CRUELTY

PAINAND SUFFERING

CAN THEY SUFFER?

In the 18th century, philosopher Jeremy Bethan framed the issue of animals and law by stating: “The question is not, “Can they reason? nor, “Can they talk?” but, “Can they suffer?”

Pain and suffering are key aspects of cruelty. Minnesota law defines cruelty to animals as: “Torture or cruelty means every act, omission, or neglect which causes or permits unnecessary or unjustifiable pain, suffering or death.”

Understanding this definition is the first step in the legal process for justice.

AFWeb_Content_Level 02_Primary_Animal Cruelty